Step 1. 找出下列句子的主語和謂語
1) Studying English takes times.
2) The first step is always the hardest.
3) Chatting on the Internet brings me a lot of fun.
4) A friend in need is a friend indeed.
5) A poor man is not necessarily unhappy.
6) A good knowledge of grammar is important to good writing.
7) Living without an aim is like sailing without a compass.
8) Confidence in yourself is the first step on the road to success.
9) The early bird catches the worm.
10) The novel won the author a Nobel Prize.
P.S. 準確找到謂語動詞之后， 請仔細觀察主語部分的語法形式和修飾成分位置。
Step 2. 確定句子結構
1) Time flies by. (思考by的詞性)
2) It slipped my mind.(感受動詞時態)
3) I can’t stand the heat. (理解stand的意思)
4) Fools seldom differ. (確定seldom修飾哪個詞)
5) I sent you an e-mail. (雙賓還是賓補)
6) It costs me three dollars. (雙賓還是賓補)
7) Old habits die hard. (hard修飾關系，位置)
8) You can leave the door open. (雙賓還是賓補)
9) He speaks English well. (well修飾關系，位置)
10) Teachers will make your English better.(better修飾關系，原形，雙賓還是賓補)
11) They elected George W. Bush US President. (雙賓還是賓補)
12) The novel won the author a Nobel Prize. (雙賓還是賓補)
13) That will save you lot of time. (雙賓還是賓補)
Step 3. 翻譯句子
1) They found the dead boy.
2) They found the boy dead.
3) I found the book easily.
4) I found the book easy.
5) Tom found Jim an apartment.
6) We found John a loyal friend.
7) I will find you a good teacher.
8) I find you a good teacher.
9) She will make him a good husband.
10) She will make him a good wife.
Step 4. 判斷語法現象
1) The education of our young people is one of the most important aspects of any community, and ideas about what and how to teach reflect the accepted attitudes and unspoken beliefs of society.
2) They are the San, a tribe of traditional hunter-gatherers, who used to travel in search of food for their families instead of growing it or keeping animals.
3) This means that instead of using artificial chemicals to make food tasty, food manufacturers could use help the quantity of the real substance and a tiny quantity of taste enhancer to make the food taste good.
4) Ask any young person to tell you the names of some famous movies and the chances are that many of those mentioned will be popular because of computer-generated special effects.
5) Visitors can view the albatross colony from a special building which has been established beside the nesting ground and, while the site is closed during breeding season, at other times it is often possible to see parents and their chicks living and feeding only metres away from human observers.
6) The structure of the backbone shows, however, that Ambulocetus swam like modern whales by moving the rear portion of its body up and down, even though a fluke was missing.
7) The impact of raindrops on the loose soil tends to transfer fine clay particles into the tiniest soil spaces, sealing them and producing a surface that allows very little water penetration.
8) The gradual drying of the soil caused by its diminished ability to absorb water results in the further loss of vegetation, so that a cycle of progressive surface deterioration is established.
9) Since the raising of most crops necessitates the prior removal of the natural vegetation, crop failures leave extensive tracts of land devoid of a plant cover and susceptible to wind and water erosion.
10) The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater.
1) Although we now tend to refer to the various crafts according to the materials used to construct them-clay, glass, wood, fiber, and metal-it was once common to think of crafts in terms of function, which led to their being known as the "applied arts."
2) According to archaeological evidence, at least 5,000 years ago, and long before the advent of the Roman Empire, the Babylonians began to measure time, introducing calendars to co-ordinate communal activities to plan the shipment of goods and, in particular, to regulate planting and harvesting.
3) The applied arts are thus bound by the laws of physics, which pertain to both the materials used in their making and the substances and things to be contained, supported, and sheltered.
4) They based their calendars on three natural cycles: the solar day, marked by the successive periods of light and darkness as the earth rotates on its axis; the lunar month, following the phases of the moon as it orbits the earth; and the solar year, defined by the changing seasons that accompany our planet’s revolution around the sun.
5) That this device was a necessary structural compromise is clear from the fact that the cannonball quickly disappeared when sculptors learned how to strengthen the internal structure of a statue with iron braces (iron being much stronger than bronze).
6) It would therefore not be too great an exaggeration to say that practitioners of the fine arts work to overcome the limitations of their materials, whereas those engaged in the applied arts work in concert with their materials.
7) The structure of the backbone shows, however, that Ambulocetus swam like modern whales by moving the rear portion of its body up and down, even though a fluke was missing.
8) What audiences came to see was the technological marvel of the movies; the lifelike reproduction of the commonplace motion of trains, of waves striking the shore, and of people walking in the street; and the magic made possible by trick photography and the manipulation of the camera.
9) People decide whether they will act aggressively or not on the basis of factors such as their experiences with aggression and their interpretation of other people's motives.
10) The applied arts are thus bound by the laws of physics, which pertain to both the materials used in their making and the substances and things to be contained, supported, and sheltered.
11) The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater.
12) Those individuals who possess characteristics that provide them with an advantage in the struggle for existence are more likely to survive and contribute their genes to the next generation.
13) Even though the fine arts in the twentieth century often treat materials in new ways, the basic difference in attitude of artists in relation to their materials in the fine arts and the applied arts remains relatively constant.
14) Since the laws of physics, not some arbitrary decision, have determined the general form of applied-art objects, they follow basic patterns, so much so that functional forms can vary only within certain limits.
15) Although we now tend to refer to the various crafts according to the materials used to construct them-clay, glass, wood, fiber, and metal-it was once common to think of crafts in terms of function, which led to their being known as the "applied arts."
16) It would therefore not be too great an exaggeration to say that practitioners of the fine arts work to overcome the limitations of their materials, whereas those engaged in the applied arts work in concert with their materials.
17) During the dry periods that are common phenomena along the desert margins, though, the pressure on the land is often far in excess of its diminished capacity, and desertification results.
18) The increasing use of dried animal waste as a substitute fuel has also hurt the soil because this valuable soil conditioner and source of plant nutrients is no longer being returned to the land.
19) He refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine-a projector-from him instead of several.
Step 6. 句子翻譯
1. The American economic system is, organized around a basically private-enterprise, market- oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most.
2. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it.
3. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product.
4. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual.
5. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employers are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns.
6. Numerous other commercial enterprises, from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers.
7. Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences.
8. The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.
9. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices.
10. Apart from the fact that twenty-seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements.